Shoulder injuries in rugby players
In rugby, players frequently sustain impact to the shoulder, mostly either due to performing tackling maneuvers or due to being tackled. Impact forces on, and leveraging forces across the shoulder during these movements may result in injuries in the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joint.
The most prevalent injuries occurring during rugby training and match play are contusions and bruising, but they may be as severe as glenohumeral (sub)luxations or dislocations and acromioclavicular separations. The examination procedure should consist of a thorough history-taking, inspection of the upper body posture, assessment of active and passive ROM, strength tests and tests for specific conditions such as subacromial pain syndromes, instability or labral pathology.
For rehabilitation, a program consisting of three phases may be used: during the Attain phase, activity of the scapulothoracal and rotator cuff muscles is elicited during stable positions. The Maintain phase moves toward more challenging maneuvers, including weightbearing positions on stable or unstable surfaces. In the Sustain phase, finally, a transfer to rugby activities is made while still emphasizing on correct posture and stabilizing muscle recruitment.
> From: Helgeson & Stoneman, Phys Ther Sport 15 (2015) 218-227. All rights reserved to Elsevier Ltd. Click here for the Pubmed summary.